IGCSE的2卷主观题目考前总结和提示

今年的CAIE(原CIE)的IGCSE的经济学2卷考试将来5月29日下午进行。

 

我们再来分析一下明天下午主观题目考试注意的地方。

 

数据题目基本是读懂原文,按分数点答题,对于2分的题目如果问的正好是两点,就回答两点。如果是4分题目问两点,则需要对每一点在回答的基础上做解释。两分的计算要给出计算过程才能拿满分。以上题目大都是阅读理解层面,如果能找到题目的基本信息,就能回答出正确答案,这一点有些像阅读理解。数据题目的5分和6分的题目和后面的Section B的6选3的题目中6分和8分的题目回答方法类似,需要进行详细的分析。

Section B的6选3的题目包括2分、4分、6分和8分的题目,其中2分和4分的题目与前面的数据题目的2分和4分的题目回答方法相似,而其中6分和8分的题需要进行详细的分析。

6分题目,一般是要求从一边论证,学生容易没有话说。这时候想想定义,然后看看能不能分类展开论证,从几个角度去论证。

8分题目,两个Side分别论证,各为一段,每个段落要4句以上,只要把两个side的论证,加一个conclusion说清楚就可以了。可以仔细读mark scheme,阅卷时一定会按照Mark Scheme,阅卷老师会仔细看你的论证逻辑。英语水平对你的分析效果会影响很大,建议大家还是要提高英语表达能力。IG经济、A-Level和IB经济区别与AP经济学的最大点,就在于它们要求学生有更高的系统分析和写作能力!

 

      IG经济学针对AO1 Understanding,AO2 Application, AO3 Analysis, 对应卷子必达题当中2分-6分的题目,以及选答题中前2-3个小题。在答题时也有一定的技巧,参考评分标准我们可以看到,有些题目问某个概念的两个特点,或两个原因,分值为4分,我们在做题时一定要注意对每个点的解释,并且注意使用术语。下面的知识点大家要在考前在着重复习一下。

 

Section I The Basic Economic Problem

 

What is opportunity cost?

next best alternative foregone

 

Section II Allocation of resource

 

What are the reasons why the supply of a product may be price-inelastic?

 

  • It may take time to produce the product. this means that it will take time to adjust supply in response to a change in price / example of a product that it takes time to produce
  • It may not be possible to store the product. this means that it cannot be taken out of storage when price rises / products cannot be put into storage when price falls
  • It may be costly to adjust supply e.g. it might be necessary to build new factories and this may discourage firms from adjusting supply
  • The supply of a natural resource may become limited e.g. gold maybe close to depletion

 

What are the causes of market failure?

 

  • Failure to take into account all costs and benefits/ external costs and benefits/ under-consumed/ underproduced/ over-consumption/ over-production
  • information failure
  • public goods are not produced in a market system
  • abuse of market power
  • lack of mobility of resource

 

Section III The individual as Producer, Consumer and Borrower

 

What are the function of money?

 

  • Store of value
  • Unit of account
  • Medium of exchange
  • Standard for deferred payment

 

What are the functions of the central bank?

 

  • Lender of last resort
  • Printing notes and minting coins
  • Setting interest rates
  • Supervising monetary policy
  • Banker for commercial banks and government
  • Manage international financial system

 

Define ‘stock exchange’

An organisation/ market for the sale and purchase of shares

 

What are the functions of trade unions?

 

  • Negotiating wages and other non-wage benefits
  • Defending employee rights and jobs
  • Improving pay and other benefits
  • Improving working conditions
  • Increase worker participation in business decisions
  • Develop skills of union members

 

Section IV The Private Firm as Producer and Employer

 

What are the economies of scale?

 

  • Financial economies
  • Technical economies
  • Risk-bearing economies
  • Marketing economies

 

What are the internal diseconomies of scale that a large firm may experience?

 

  • Difficulties controlling/ managing the firm/ managerial diseconomies as there are more layers of management in a large firm so ti may take longer to make decisions
  • communication problems as there are more layers of communication and communication may be indirect. messages may be misinterpreted and it takes time to reach recipients
  • labour diseconomies: workers may feel less appreciated/ have low morale so may become demotivated which could reduce labour productivity/ efficiency
  • poor industrial relations: there may be industrial action such as strikes

 

What are the advantages that firms may gain from a horizontal merger?

 

  • Take advantages of economies of scale, reduce average costs
  • Increased market share as a direct competitor is eliminated
  • exchange ideas and gain technology so that to increase innovation and produce with better quality

 

What are the advantages of a sole proprietor?

 

  • Profit incentive/all profits go to the sole proprietor, do not have to share with partners
  • and/or shareholders
  • Flexible as no one else to consult/quick to make decisions
  • Provides personal services/has personal contact with consumers (1) can pick up changes in
  • demand/target products
  • Low start up costs/easy to set up, eases entry into the market/limited legal requirements
  • Own boss, no-one to take orders from

 

What is multinational company?

 

a company that has its headquarters/is based in a country but produces in a number of countries

 

What are the characteristics of perfect competition?

 

  • many buyers and sellers, making each firm a price taker
  • free entry and exit, absence of barriers to entry and exit/ results in only normal profits being earned in the long run
  • homogeneous product, demand for one firm’s product will be perfectly elastic
  • perfect knowledge, firms and buyers aware of profits

 

Define ‘monopoly’

A market with one seller/ single supplier

A price maker/ a firm with market power/ dominant firm/ has barriers to entry

 

Section V Role of Government in an Economy

 

What are the aims of government?

 

  • ull employment
  • price stability
  • economic growth
  • redistribution of income
  • stability of balance of payment

 

What are the types of direct taxes?

 

  • income tax
  • corporation tax
  • capital gains tax
  • inheritance tax

 

What are the types of indirect taxes?

 

  • sale tax/ value added tax
  • excise duties
  • customs duties/ tariff
  • licences

 

How supply-side policy measures could increase productivity?

 

  • improved education/training, may raise workers’ skills, increase output per worker hour
  • privatisation may increase competitive pressure on firms to keep costs low, encourage more investment, and increase output per factor hour
  • reforming trade unions may reduce restrictive practices, this may allow firms to use their workers more efficiently increase output per worker hour
  • cutting corporation tax may increase profit, increase investment and increase output per factor hour
  • giving subsidies to encourage firms to invest in advanced technology, engage in research and development and/or train workers

 

Section VI Economic Indicators

 

What are the types of unemployment?

 

  • Cyclical
  • Structural
  • Frictional
  • Seasonal/ Casual

 

What are the causes of inflation

 

  • demand-pull
  • cost-push
  • monetary

 

What are the indicators of living standards?

 

  • GDP per capita
  • HDI takes into account income, education and life expectancy

 

Section VII Developing and Developed Countries

 

What is absolute poverty?

 

  • A lack of access to basic necessities e.g. food/clothing/housing
  • Living on less than e.g. US$1.25 a day

 

What are the characteristics of a rapidly developing economy?

 

  • high increase in real GDP per head will increase living standards by investment
  • significant improvements in healthcare will increase life expectancy cause by increased spending on hospitals
  • significant improvements in education will raise workers skills
  • high proportion of workers employed in the tertiary sector . as countries develops, workers tent to move from primary and secondary sectors to the tertiary sector
  • low rates of population growth. as countries develop, the birth rate tends to fall faster than the death rate
  • high spending on luxury products
  • encouragement of MNCs to set up as it may reduce unemployment
  • more use of advanced technology due to more research and development and invest

 

Section VIII International Aspects

 

What are the benefits of specialisation?

 

  • A country can specialise in what it is best at producing/increase efficiency/increase productivity so leading to higher output/higher income
  • A country can gain a good reputation in producing the product/produce a high quality product, this may increase demand for the product

 

What is ‘balance of payments’

 

  • Record of economic transactions with other countries, which includes current account, capital account and financial account

 

What are the reasons why an economy may have a high foreign exchange rate?

 

  • a high demand for the currency. this may arise from e.g. good quality/lower price of exports/speculation that the currency will rise in the future
  • a low supply of the currency due to, for instance, a low demand for imports/a low level of investment abroad
  • government setting a high exchange rate by buying the currency/raising the exchange rate

 

以上就是基础知识部分的常考题目,在近三年的卷子当中也被重复考察,希望大家认真复习,牢牢拿住基础部分分数!

最后强调,主观题目的试卷最重要的是分析,对于6分和8分的题目一定要进行有逻辑的或者分类的分析。

祝大家明天下午考试成功!

 

 

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