CIE IGCSE Biology: 复习笔记:1.1.3 Pressure & Temperature in Gases

CIE IGCSE Biology: 复习笔记:1.1.3 Pressure & Temperature in Gases

Pressure & Temperature in Gases

  • A change in temperature or pressure affects the volume of gases
  • As the air inside a hot air balloon is heated up, it expands and the balloon gets bigger
  • This is because the volume of a gas increases as its temperature increases

00wSqAQ6_1-1-3-hot-air-balloon

As temperature increases gas volume increases. The density decreases as the volume increases so the balloon rises.

  • If you have a gas stored inside a container that is squeezed, the pressure increases as you decrease the volume
  • This is what happens in a bicycle pump
  • As you compress the bicycle pump the high pressure allows you to inflate a tire
  • You can feel the force of the high pressure if you put your finger on the end of the pump

bicycle-pump

Pressure increases as volume decreases in a bicycle pump

 

 

Gases & Kinetic Theory

EXTENDED

  • Gaseous particles are in constant and random motion
  • The pressure that gas creates inside a closed container is produced by the gaseous particles hitting the inside walls of the container

Random-motion-of-gas-particles

Moving particles of gas colliding with each other and the container walls

  • An increase in temperature increases the kinetic energy of each particle, as the heat energy is transformed to kinetic energy, so they move faster
  • As the temperature increases, the particles in the gas move faster, impacting the container's walls more frequently
  • If the container walls are flexible and stretchy then the container will get bigger and bigger, just like the hot air balloon!
  • If the container is made smaller, then the gas particles hit the wall more frequently
  • So when there is a decrease in volume this causes an increase in gas pressure

1.2.5-States-of-Matter-Volume-and-Pressure

Molecules collide more frequently with the container walls when the pressure is increased

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