CIE IGCSE Biology: 复习笔记:17.1.1 Chromosomes, Genes & Proteins

CIE IGCSE Biology: 复习笔记:17.1.1 Chromosomes, Genes & Proteins

The Structure of Genes

Inheritance of Chromosomes, Genes and DNA

 

  • Inheritance is the transmission of genetic information from generation to generation
  • Chromosomes are located in the nucleus of cells
  • They are thread-like structures of DNA, carrying genetic information in the form of genes
  • gene is a short length of DNA found on a chromosome that codes for a specific protein
  • This could be a structural protein such as collagen found in skin cells, an enzyme or a hormone
  • Genes control our characteristics as they code for proteins that play important roles in what our cells do
  • Think about zomming into the nucleus of a cell, as shown in the diagram below
    • On the right is the zoomed-out view
    • Which zooms in as we read across the diagram right-to-left

 

 

 

DNA-genes-and-chromosomes Genes are short lengths of DNA that code for a protein. They are found on chromosomes

 

  

  • Alleles are different versions of a particular gene. The ABO gene for blood group type has three alleles, IA, IB and IO
  • Alleles give all organisms their characteristics

 

 

Exam Tip

The Zoom model is always usful when trying to viualise where you are in a cell, and what molecules are doing what. Imagine a zoom lens that has the power to zoom right out to look at a whole organism, but also to zoom right into individual molecules. This helps in recognising the structures in cell nuclei visible as chromosomes, then zooming in to picture the individual genes and then, the bases that make up the DNA

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