Crossing over of non-sister chromatids leading to the exchange of genetic material
Independent assortment of homologous chromosomes leading to different genetic combinations in daughter cells
How meiosis and the random fusion of gametes affects genetic variation
Several sources of genetic variation have been outlined above. It is also worth remembering that genetic variation can occur on an even smaller scale than chromosomes. Mutations can occur within genes. A random mutation that takes place during DNA replication can lead to the production of new alleles and increased genetic variation.