CIE IGCSE Biology: 复习笔记:5.1.4 Enzymes & Temperature: Extended

CIE IGCSE Biology: 复习笔记:5.1.4 Enzymes & Temperature: Extended

Enzymes & Temperature: Extended

  • Enzymes are proteins and have a specific shape, held in place by bonds
  • This is extremely important around the active site area as the specific shape is what ensures the substrate will fit into the active site and enable the reaction to proceed
  • Enzymes work fastest at their ‘optimum temperature’ – in the human body, the optimum temperature is 37⁰C
  • Heating to high temperatures (beyond the optimum) will break the bonds that hold the enzyme together and it will lose its shape -this is known as denaturation
  • Substrates cannot fit into denatured enzymes as the shape of their active site has been lost
  • Denaturation is irreversible - once enzymes are denatured they cannot regain their proper shape and activity will stop

Effect of temperature on enzyme activity

  • Increasing the temperature from 0⁰C to the optimum increases the activity of enzymes as the more energy the molecules have the faster they move and the number of collisions with the substrate molecules increases, leading to a faster rate of reaction
  • This means that low temperatures do not denature enzymes, they just make them work more slowly

Graph showing the effect of temperature on the rate of enzyme activity