CIE IGCSE Biology: 复习笔记:2.1.2 Organisation of Cells

CIE IGCSE Biology: 复习笔记:2.1.2 Organisation of Cells

Producing New Cells

  • The cells in your body need to be able to divide to help your body grow and repair itself
  • Cells grow and divide over and over again
  • New cells are produced by the division of existing cells

Specialised Cells

Specialised cells in animals

  • Specialised cells are those which have developed certain characteristics in order to perform particular functions. These differences are controlled by genes in the nucleus
  • Cells specialise by undergoing differentiation: this is a process by which cells develop the structure and characteristics needed to be able to carry out their functions

Specialised Cells in Animals Table

 Diagrams of specialised cells in animals:


Ciliated cell

Nerve cell

Red blood cells


Sperm cell

Egg cell

Examples of specialised cells in plants:

Diagrams of specialised cells in plants:

Root hair cell

Xylem structure

Palisade mesophyll cell

Levels of Organisation in an Organism

Levels of organisation

  • Your syllabus states that you should be able to identify the different levels of organisation in drawings, diagrams and images of familiar material
  • An example of this is shown in the exam question below:

Typical levels of organisation question

Exam Tip

Most incorrect answers here come from not being able to identify a tissue, so it’s worth making sure you understand and remember that tissues are always made up of only one type of cell.