CIE IGCSE Biology: 复习笔记:1.1.1 Characteristics of Living Organisms

CIE IGCSE Biology: 复习笔记:1.1.1 Characteristics of Living Organisms

Characteristics of Living Organisms


  • Movement: an action by an organism or part of an organism causing a change of position or place
  • Respiration: the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy for metabolism
  • Sensitivity: the ability to detect or sense stimuli in the internal or external environment and to make appropriate responses
  • Growth: a permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell size or both
  • Reproduction: the processes that make more of the same kind of organism
  • Excretion: the removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells including respiration) and substances in excess of requirements
  • Nutrition: the taking in of materials for energy, growth and development; plants require light, carbon dioxide, water and ions; animals need organic compounds, ions and usually need water

Exam Tip

Use this mnemonic to help you remember these processes:


  • Movement
  • Respiration
  • Sensitivity
  • Homeostasis
  • Growth and development
  • Reproduction
  • Excretion
  • Nutrition