EDEXCEL IGCSE CHEMISTRY: DOUBLE SCIENCE 复习笔记:2.6.3 Reactions of Acids

EDEXCEL IGCSE CHEMISTRY: DOUBLE SCIENCE 复习笔记:2.6.3 Reactions of Acids

Reactions of Acids

 

Reactions of acids with metals

  • Only metals above hydrogen in the reactivity series will react with dilute acids
  • The more reactive the metal then the more vigorous the reaction will be
  • Metals that are placed high on the reactivity series such as potassium and sodium are very dangerous and react explosively with acids
  • When acids react with metals they form a salt and hydrogen gas:
  • The general equation is:

 

metal + acid ⟶ salt + hydrogen

  • Some examples of metal-acid reactions and their equations are given below:

 

 

Acid-Metals Reactions Table

 

  • In general, we can summarise the reaction of a metal that forms a +2 ion as follows:

 

Acids-Metals Summary Table

 

 

Reaction of acids with bases

  • When an acid reacts with a base, a neutralisation reaction occurs
  • In all acid-base neutralisation reactions, a salt and water are produced:

 

acid + base ⟶ salt + water

 

  • The identity of the salt produced depends on the acid used and the positive ions in the base
  • Hydrochloric acid produces chlorides, sulfuric acid produces sulfate salts and nitric acid produces nitrates
  • Metal oxides and metal hydroxides act as bases
  • The following are some specific examples of reactions  between acids and metal oxides / hydroxides:

 

2HCl + CuO ⟶ CuCl2 + H2O

 

H2SO4 + 2NaOH ⟶ Na2SO4 + 2H2O

 

HNO3 + KOH ⟶ KNO3 + H2O

 

 

 

  • In general, we can summarise the reaction of metals and bases as follows:

 

Acids and Metals Oxides or Hydroxides Summary Table

 

 

Reactions of Acids with Metal Carbonates

  • Acids will react with metal carbonates to form the corresponding metal saltcarbon dioxide and water
  • These reactions are easily distinguishable from acid – metal oxide/hydroxide reactions due to the presence of effervescence caused by the carbon dioxide gas

 

Acids & Metal Carbonates Reactions Table

 

 

  • The following are some specific examples of reactions  between acids and metal carbonates:

 

2HCl + Na2CO3 ⟶ 2NaCl + H2O + CO2

 

H2SO4 + CaCO3⟶ CaSO4 + H2O + CO2

 

Exam Tip

If in an acid-base reaction there is effervescence produced then the base must be a metal carbonate which produces carbon dioxide gas.

转载自savemyexams

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