Edexcel A (SNAB) A Level Biology:复习笔记1.2.3 Treatment of CVD

Treatment of CVD

  • While reducing the risk factors and lowering the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the best option, CVD is still very common and treatment options are needed
  • There are a number of different treatment options for cardiovascular disease, many of which involve taking medication
  • Types of medication for the treatment of CVD include
    • Antihypertensives
    • Statins
    • Anticoagulants
    • Platelet inhibitors

Antihypertensives

  • These drugs work by lowering blood pressure
    • High blood pressure is also known as hypertension
  • Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of arterial endothelial damage and therefore reduces the risk of atheromas and thrombosis
  • Beta blockers, vasodilators and diuretics act as antihypertensives
    • Beta blockers prevent increases in heart rate
    • Vasodilators increase the diameter of the blood vessels
    • Diuretics reduce blood volume by decreasing the amount of sodium reabsorbed into the blood by the kidneys, therefore decreasing the volume of water reabsorbed into the blood

Statins

  • These drugs work by lowering blood cholesterol
    • They block an enzyme in the liver which is needed to make cholesterol
  • This lowers the LDL concentration in the blood therefore reducing the risk of atheroma formation
    • LDLs are sometimes known as 'bad' cholesterol; at high levels they increase the risk of atheromas forming

Anticoagulants

  • These drugs reduce blood clotting
    • Blood clotting can be referred to as blood coagulation
  • Reduced formation of blood clots decreases the likelihood of thrombosis and therefore reduces the risk of blood vessels being blocked by blood clots

Platelet inhibitors

  • These are also substances which reduce blood clotting
    • Platelet inhibitors are a type of anticoagulant
  • They prevent the clumping together of platelets, so preventing the formation of blood clots
  • Aspirin is an example of a platelet inhibitor

Benefits and Risks of Cardiovascular Disease Drugs Table

Exam Tip

You need to know these four examples and their associated benefits and risks.  Be sure to be specific on how each medication type prevents CVD.

 

 

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