# 2018年AP物理1和AP物理2考前总结

2018年AP物理1考试时间是2018年5月8日下午12：20，AP物理2考试时间是2018年5月9日下午12：20

AP物理1和AP物理2试卷结构：

 题型 题目数量 考试时间 原始分计分原则 AP物理1 选择题 单选题 45 90 分钟 50题*1分/题 =50分 多选题 5 简答题 5 90 分钟 每道题目分数不等，总计45分 总答题时间180分种 原始分总分95分 AP物理2 选择题 单选题 45 90分钟 50题*1分/题 =50分 多选题 5 简答题 4 90分钟 每道题目分数不等，总计45分 总答题时间180分种 原始分总分95分

2.简答题考察1道实验设计题，1道计算题，其余为短问答题（其中一道需要学生进行辩证分析和叙述）。

AP物理1和AP物理2单选题

The diagram above shows a top view of achild of mass M on a circular platform of mass 2M that is rotatingcounterclockwise. Assume the platform rotates without friction. Which of thefollowing describes an action by the child that will increase the angular speedof the platform-child system and gives the correct reason why?

(A) The child moves toward the center ofthe platform, increasing the total angular momentum of the system.

(B) The child moves toward the center ofthe platform, decreasing the rotational inertia of the system.

(C) The child moves away from the centerof the platform, increasing the total angular momentum of the system.

(D) The child moves away from the centerof the platform, decreasing the rotational inertia of the system.

In an experiment, three microscopiclatex spheres are sprayed into a chamber and become charged with +3e, +5e and-3e, respectively. Later, all three spheres collide simultaneously and thenseparate. Which of the following are possible values for the final charges onthe spheres? Select two answers.

X        Y       Z

(A)  +4e     -4e      +5e

(B)  -4e     +4.5e    +4.5e

(C)  +5e     -8e      +7e

(D)  +6e     +6e     -7e

A groupof students has two carts, A and B, with wheels that turn with negligiblefriction. The carts can travel along a straight horizontal track. Cart A hasknown mass mA. The students are asked to use a one-dimensionalcollision between the carts to determine the mass of cart B. Before thecollision, cart A travels to the right and cart B is initially at rest, asshown above. After the collision, the carts stick together.

(a) Describean experimental procedure to determine the velocities of the carts before andafter a collision, including all the additional equipment you would need. Youmay include a labeled diagram of your setup to help in your description.Indicate what measurements you would take and how you would take them. Includeenough detail so that another student could carry out your procedure.

(b)There will be sources of error in the measurements taken in the experiment,both before and after the collision. For your experimental procedure, will theuncertainty in the calculated value of the mass of cart B be affected more bythe error in the measurements taken before the collision or by those takenafter the collision, or will it be equally affected by both sets ofmeasurements?

A group of students took measurementsfor one collision. A graph of the students’ data is shown below.

(c) Given mA=0.50kg, usethe graph to calculate the mass of cart B. Explicitly indicate the principlesused in your calculations.

(d) The students are now asked to consider thekinetic energy changes in an inelastic collision, specifically whether theinitial values of one of the physical quantities affect the fraction ofmechanical energy dissipated in the collision. How could you modify theexperiment to investigate this question? Be sure to explicitly describe thecalculations you would make, specifying all equations you would use (but do notactually do any algebra or arithmetic).

(a) 评分说明：实验设计题的答案不是唯一的，只要合理可行即可。本题中，须使用合理的实验装置，并明确指出测量碰撞前与碰撞后的速度所需的所有实验步骤。初此之外，须没有其他与实验无关的装置和测量。

Place a motion detector at the left endof the track. Push cart A to give it an initial speed. Record position as afunction of time, first for cart A and then the combined cart A and B.

(b)评分说明：对碰撞前与碰撞后的测量误差给出合理的假设，并根据这些假设对比它们在计算物块B的质量时产生的影响而得出结论。

If the measurement errors are of the same magnitude,they will have a greater effect after the collision. The speed of the combinedcarts will be less than the initial speed of cart A, so errors of the samemagnitude will be a greater percentage of the actual value after the collision.So the values after the collision will have a greater effect on the value ofthe mass of cart B.

(c)

Conservation ofmomentum can be used to determine the mass of cart B:

The speed vibefore the collision is the slope of the best-fit line for the data from 0 to1s. The speed vfafter the collision is the slope of thebest-fit line for the data from 1 to 2s.

Applying conservation of momentum:

(d) 评分说明：须与（a）中的实验装置和步骤一致，改变其中某个物理量进行实验，根据用测量数据计算碰撞前与碰撞后的动能，通过比较损失的机械能得出结论。

You could vary the initial speed of cart A. From the data, calculatevalues of kinetic energy before and after the collision using

. Then analyze

to see if the changes in initial speedgive different values.

AP物理1和AP物理2 是2015年AP考试起对物理B考试的改革，把物理B分成了两门考试，它们涵盖范围除了物理B原有的内容（牛顿力学、流体力学、热学、电学、磁学、光学、机械波和原子物理等基本知识）外，还增加了转动力学部分。考核知识在原来物理B的基础上稍有加深，而且还增加了实验部分的比重。AP物理1和AP物理2所需数学知识浅显，只涉及代数方程，我国高中数学足以解决AP物理1和AP物理2考试中的数学要求。由于AP物理1和AP物理2考试涵盖范围很宽，不管学生今后在大学选什么专业都有用。

AP物理1考试的覆盖范围可以大体上分为五大块

1. 运动学&牛顿定律

2. 功&能&动量

3. 圆周运动&转动力学

4. 振动&波

5. 电场力&纯电阻电路

2015年

2016年：

1. 运动学&牛顿定律(kinetics,dynamics)

uniformly accelerated motion 匀加速运动

velocity-time diagram 速度-时间图

projectile motion 抛体运动

Newton’s Law 牛顿定律

Free-body diagram 受力分析图

2. 功&能&动量

（work,energy, impulse)

work 功

energy conservation 能量守恒

kinetic and potential energy 动能与势能

the conservation of mechanical energy 机械能守恒

power 功率

impulse 冲量

conservation of linear momentum 动量守恒

elasticand inelastic collision 弹性和非弹性碰撞。

3.圆周运动和转动

(circular motion, rotational motion)

Uniformly Circular Motion 匀速圆周运动

Newton’s Law of Gravitation 牛顿万有引力

Torque 力矩

Equilibrium 平衡

Rotational Kinematics 转动运动学

Rotational Dynamics 转动力学

4.振动和波 （oscillation & wave）

Simple Harmonic Motion 简谐振动

Pendulum 摆

Traveling waves 行波

Standing waves 驻波

Doppler effect 多普勒效应

5.电场力和纯电阻电路

(electrostatics and DC circuits)

Electric Forces 电场力

Electric Fields 电场

Conductor 导体

Ohm’s Law 欧姆定律

Electric power 电功率

AP物理2考试相对于物理1考试的覆盖范围更加广，主要包括

1. 流体力学

2. 热学

3. 电场和电容

4. 直流电路

5. 磁学

6. 光学

7. 近现代物理

2015年

2016年

1. 流体力学 fluid mechanics

Fluid pressure 流体压强

Buoyancy 浮力

FlowRate Equation 径流量方程

Bernoulli’s equation 伯努利定理

2. 热学 thermal physics

IdealGas 理想气体及其状态方程

ThermalDynamics 热力学第一定律。

3. 电场和电容 electrostatics

ElectricForce 电场力

ElectricField 电场强度

Conductor& Insulator 导体与绝缘体

ElectricPotential 电势

Capacitance 电容

4.直流电路 Direct Circuits

5.Magnetism磁学

6.光学 geometric and physical optics

Interference 干涉

Diffraction 衍射

Reflection 反射

Refraction 折射

Dispersion 色散

Spherical Mirrors 球面镜

Lens 透镜

7.近现代物理 modern physics

Photoelectric effect 光电效应

energy level 能级

Wave-particleduality 波粒二象性

nuclear reaction 核反应