# Edexcel A Level Further Maths: Core Pure:复习笔记1.2.1 Exponential Form

### Exponential Form

You now know how to do lots of operations with complex numbers: add, subtract, multiply, divide, raise to a power and even square root. The last operation to learn is raising the number e to the power of an imaginary number.

#### How do we calculate e to the power of an imaginary number?

• Given an imaginary number (iθ) we can define exponentiation as
• is the complex number with modulus 1 and argument θ
• This works with our current rules of exponents
• This shows e to the power 0 would still give the answer of 1
• This is because when you multiply complex numbers you can add the arguments
• This shows that when you multiply two powers you can still add the indices
• This is because when you divide complex numbers you can subtract the arguments
• This shows that when you divide two powers you can still subtract the indices

#### What is the exponential form of a complex number?

• Any complex number  can be written in polar form
• r is the modulus
• θ is the argument
• Using the definition of we can now also write  in exponential form

#### Why do I need to use the exponential form of a complex number?

• It's just a shorter and quicker way of expressing complex numbers
• It makes a link between the exponential function and trigonometric functions
• It makes it easier to remember what happens with the moduli and arguments when multiplying and dividing

#### What are some common numbers in exponential form?

• As  and  you can write:
• Using the same idea you can write:
• where k is any integer
• As and  you can write:
• Or more commonly written as
• As  and  you can write:

#### Exam Tip

• The powers can be long and contain fractions so make sure you write the expression clearly.

#### Worked Example

Two complex numbers are given by  and .

a) Write  in the form

b) Write  in the form .

### Operations using Exponential Form

#### How do I multiply and divide exponential forms of complex numbers?

• If  and  then
• You can clearly see that the moduli have been multiplied and the arguments have been added
• You can clearly see that the moduli have been divided and the arguments have been subtracted

#### How do I find the complex conjugate of a complex number in exponential form?

• Simply change the sign of the argument(s)
• If  then
• then

#### Worked Example

Consider the complex number . Calculate  giving your answer in the form