Edexcel A Level Physics:复习笔记1.8 Science & Society

Science Informs Decision Making

  • Society makes decisions based on scientific evidence
    • This is why the evidence must be thoroughly tested and trusted
  • Scientific work leads to important discoveries that benefit humankind
    • For example, rigorous testing for medication means it is safe for consumption to treat the symptoms of an illness
  • These results are used by society to make decisions about how people live, eat, drive, work etc.
    • All sections of society use scientific evidence to make these decisions
    • This is mostly done by policy makers, politicians and government
  • Most individual making these decisions may not be scientists themselves, so they will be trusting the research to base their opinions on
    • Other factors can influence decisions about science or the way that it is used

 

Economic Factors

  • The economy is based on money and the cost of implementing these changes
    • Not only can experiments be very expensive to run, but the cost of buying technology for healthcare or transport costs a lot of taxpayer money
  • Therefore, when research is expensive, the government must justify spending money on new equipment,
    • Such as a telescope, instead of other areas of society such as schools or healthcare
  • However, the long term benefits should also be considered
    • For example, reducing carbon emissions to limit the human contribution to climate change
    • In this case, the current human contribution to climate change will be provided from scientific research, as well as methods to reduce carbon emissions (e.g. solar power)

 

Social Factors

  • Social factors are considered for decisions that affect people's daily life
    • This could be how it affects the surrounding area when people live, such as noise pollution
  • These factors should take into account all members of society, whether they're young, old, disabled and for all genders
  • An example of this is scientific knowledge of a healthy lifestyle informing the choices we make
    • E.g. Cycling to work instead of driving in order to exercise and reduce carbon footprint

 

Environmental Factors

  • Environmental factors are taken into account for any decisions that could affect the environment
    • This is primarily plants and animals within the geography of an area
  • An example of this is wind farms
    • Although they are cheap and environmentally friendly (wind is a sustainable energy source) way to generate electricity, the turbines can harm birds and bats
    • This means another method of electricity production should be considered, to not cause harm to the environment

 

1-8-wind-farms_edexcel-al-physics-rn

Wind farms can be harmful to wildlife, which may mean they shouldn't be built in certain areas

 

 

 

转载自savemyexams

更多Alevel课程
翰林国际教育资讯二维码