Edexcel A Level Economics A:复习笔记2.5.1 Causes of Growth

Causes of Economic Growth

  • Economic growth can occur in the short-run or long-run and each is explained differently

Short-run Economic Growth

  • Changes to any of the components of aggregate demand (AD) will cause short-run economic growth to occur
    • This is illustrated on an AD/AS diagram by a rightward shift in AD
    • It can also be illustrated by using the production possibilities frontier model by moving from a point inside the curve to a point closer to the curve

1. Short-run Economic Growth on AD/AS Diagram


A diagram illustrating short-run economic growth through a shift of aggregate demand from AD→AD1


Diagram Analysis

  • An increase in consumption, investment, government spending or net exports has caused a shift in AD from AD→AD1
  • The current real output has increased from Y1→Y2 which represents an increase in real GDP
    • An increase in real GDP = economic growth
  • This short-run growth has led to an increase in average prices from AP1→AP2

2. Short-run Economic Growth on Production Possibilities Frontier (PPF)


A diagram illustrating short-run economic growth on a production possibilities frontier (PPF) model

Diagram Analysis

  • An increase in production has caused a shift in production combinations from X→Y
  • The current real output has increased moving closer to the maximum possible output of the economy
    •  This represents an increase in real GDP
    • An increase in real GDP = economic growth


Long-run Economic Growth

  • Long-run economic growth is caused by any improvements to the quality or quantity of the factors of production
    • These factors include all of the determinants of long-run aggregate supply


A diagram illustrating long-run economic growth through an increase in the long-run aggregate supply (LRAS) of the economy


Diagram Analysis

  • A change to the quantity/quality of the factors of production has increased potential output of the economy from YFE→YFE1
    • E.g. More rigorous competition policy creates a higher number of firms in each industry leading to greater aggregate supply in the economy
      • This shifts the long-run aggregate supply curve to the right LRAS1→LRAS2 resulting in economic growth
  • The final impact on price levels depends on the shape of the long-run aggregate supply curve (Keynesian or Classical)

Actual & Potential Growth

  • Actual economic growth occurs when there is an increase in the quantity of goods/services produced in an economy in a given period of time
    • This is often measured by the percentage change in real gross domestic product (GDP)
  • Potential growth is the increase in the productive potential of an economy as demonstrated by a shift outward of the production possibilities frontier (PPF) or the long-run aggregate supply (LRAS) curve
  • At any given point in time, the actual economic growth may be less than the potential growth available to the economy

International Trade & Export-led Economic Growth

  • International trade is an important source of income for many countries
  • Export-led economic growth refers to growth that occurs as a result of an increase in the sale of goods/services to foreign countries
    • Net exports is a component of aggregate demand (AD)
    • For many developing countries, the exports represent a high percentage of the annual AD and gross domestic product (GDP)
      • When the value of the exports rise, the real GDP rises significantly - and vice versa
  • E.g. China experienced significant export-led economic growth from 1988 to the global financial crisis of 2008