Edexcel A Level Chemistry:复习笔记3.2.1 Describing Alkanes

Describing Alkanes

 

  • Hydrocarbons are compounds containing hydrogen and carbon only
  • There are four families of hydrocarbons you should know: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and arenes
    • Alkanes, alkenes and alkynes can be described as aliphatic
    • Arenes can be described as aromatic
  • Alkanes have the general molecular formula CnH2n+2
  • They contain only single bonds and are said to be saturated
  • Alkanes are named using the nomenclature rule alk + ane
    • The alk portion of the name depends on the number of carbons
      • 1 carbon = meth
      • 2 carbons = eth
      • 3 carbons = prop
      • 4 carbons = but
      • 5 carbons = pent
      • After 5 carbons, the naming of alkanes matches the names of the polygons in Maths
    •  The ane portion of the name suggests single bonds between the carbon atoms

The First Six Members of the Alkane Family

10.1.4-Alkanes-First-6-members-110.1.4-Alkanes-First-6-members-2

 

  • Alkanes can be linear, branched or cyclic
    • The key points are that there are no functional groups and only single bonds between the carbon atoms

3.1-An-Introduction-to-AS-Level-Organic-Chemistry-Alkanes

Alkanes are compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms only and contain no functional group

 

 

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