# CIE A Level Maths: Pure 3复习笔记8.3.1 Exponential Form of Complex Numbers

### Exponential Form of Complex Numbers

You now know how to do lots of operations with complex numbers: add, subtract, multiply, divide, raise to a power and even square root. The last operation to learn is raising the number e to the power of an imaginary number.

#### How do we calculate e to the power of an imaginary number?

• Given an imaginary number (iθ) we can define exponentiation as
• • is the complex number with modulus 1 and argument θ
• This works with our current rules of exponents
• • This shows e to the power 0 would still give the answer of 1
• • This is because when you multiply complex numbers you can add the arguments
• This shows that when you multiply two powers you can still add the indices
• • This is because when you divide complex numbers you can subtract the arguments
• This shows that when you divide two powers you can still subtract the indices

#### What is the exponential form of a complex number?

• Any complex number can be written in polar form • r is the modulus
• θ is the argument
• Using the definition of we can now also write Z in exponential form
• #### Why do I need to use the exponential form of a complex number?

• It's just a shorter and quicker way of expressing complex numbers
• It makes a link between the exponential function and trigonometric functions
• It makes it easier to remember what happens with the moduli and arguments when multiplying and dividing
• If and then
• • You can clearly see that the moduli have been multiplied and the arguments have been added
• • You can clearly see that the moduli have been divided and the arguments have been subtracted

#### What are some common numbers in exponential form?

• As and you can write:
• • Using the same idea you can write:
• where k is any integer
• As and you can write:
• • Or more commonly written as
• • As and you can write:
• #### Worked Example  #### Exam Tip

• The powers can be long and contain fractions so make sure you write the expression clearly.
• You don’t want to lose marks because the examiner can’t read your answer 