CIE A Level Physics复习笔记20.1.9 Velocity Selection

Velocity Selection

  • A velocity selector is defined as:

A device consisting of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields where charged particles with a specific velocity can be filtered

  • Velocity selectors are used in devices, such as mass spectrometers, in order to produce a beam of charged particles all travelling at the same velocity
  • The construction of a velocity selector consists of two horizontal oppositely charged plates situated in a vacuum chamber
    • The plates provide a uniform electric field with strength E between them
  • There is also a uniform magnetic field with flux density applied perpendicular to the electric field
    • If a beam of charged particles enter between the plates, they may all have the same charge but travel at different speeds v
  • The electric force does not depend on the velocity: FE = EQ
  • However, the magnetic force does depend on the velocity: FB = BQv
    • The magnetic force will be greater for particles which are travelling faster
  • To select particles travelling at exactly the desired the speed v, the electric and magnetic force must therefore be equal, but in opposite directions


Velocity selection diagram, downloadable AS & A Level Physics revision notes

The particles travelling at the desired speed v will travel through undeflected due to the equal and opposite electric and magnetic forces on them

  • The resultant force on the particles at speed v will be zero, so they will remain undeflected and pass straight through between the plates
  • By equating the electric and magnetic force equations:

EQ = BQv

  • The charge Q will cancel out on both sides to give the selected velocity equation:

Velocity Selection equation 1

  • Therefore, the speed v in which a particle will remain undeflected is found by the ratio of the electric and magnetic field strength
    • If a particle has a speed greater or less than v, the magnetic force will deflect it and collide with one of the charged plates
    • This would remove the particles in the beam that are not exactly at speed v
  • Note: the gravitational force on the charged particles will be negligible compared to the electric and magnetic forces and therefore can be ignored in these calculations

Worked Example

A positive ion travels between two charged plates towards a slit Sa) State the direction of the electric and magnetic fields on the ionb) Calculate the speed of the ion emerging from slit S when the magnetic flux density is 0.50 T and the electric field strength is 2.8 kV m-1c) Which plate will the ion be deflected towards if the speed was greater than the speed in part (b)WE velocity selection question image, downloadable AS & A Level Physics revision notes

Part (a)

Step 1:            Direction of E field

          • Electric field lines point from the positive to negative to charge
          • Therefore, it must be directed vertically upwards

Step 2:            Direction of B field

          • Using Fleming’s left-hand rule:
            • The charge or current I is to the right
            • B is out of the page
            • Therefore, the force F is vertically downwards

Part (b)

Velocity selector equation

Electric field strength, E = 2.8 kV m-1 = 2.8 × 103 V m-1

Magnetic flux density, B = 0.50 T

Velocity Selection Worked Example equation 1

Part (c)

If the speed increases, the magnetic force must be greater because FB ∝ v

Since the magnetic force would direct the ion downwards in the direction of the field, the ion will be deflected towards the positive plate