CIE A Level Biology复习笔记14.1.4 Nephron Structure

Nephron Structure

  • Each kidney contains thousands of tiny tubes, known as nephrons
  • The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney – the nephrons are responsible for the formation of urine


The location and structure of a nephron

  • There is also a network of blood vessels associated with each nephron:
    • Within the Bowman’s capsule of each nephron is a structure known as the glomerulus
    • Each glomerulus is supplied with blood by an afferent arteriole (which carries blood from the renal artery)
    • The capillaries of the glomerulus rejoin to form an efferent arteriole
    • Blood then flows from the efferent arteriole into a network of capillaries that run closely alongside the rest of the nephron
    • Blood from these capillaries eventually flows into the renal vein


The blood supply associated with a nephron

Exam Tip

As well as in diagrams, you should be able to identify the parts of the nephron described above in photomicrographs and electron micrographs too (examples of these can be found in your Cambridge International AS & A Level coursebook).