CIE A Level Biology复习笔记14.1.3 Kidney Structure

Structure of the Human Kidney

  • Humans have two kidneys
  • The kidneys are responsible for carrying out two very important functions:
    • As an osmoregulatory organ - they regulate the water content of the blood (vital for maintaining blood pressure)
    • As an excretory organ - they excrete the toxic waste products of metabolism (such as urea) and substances in excess of requirements (such as salts)

The-urinary-system-in-humans-768x616-1

The position of the kidneys and their associated structures

The function of the kidneys & their associated structures

The-function-of-the-kidneys-and-their-associated-structures

  • The kidney itself is surrounded by a fairly tough outer layer known as the fibrous capsule
  • Beneath the fibrous capsule, the kidney has three main areas:
    • The cortex (contains the glomerulus, as well as the Bowman’s capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, and distal convoluted tubule of the nephrons)
    • The medulla (contains the loop of Henle and collecting duct of the nephrons)
    • The renal pelvis (where the ureter joins the kidney)

Kidney-structures

A cross-section of a kidney (as seen when cut in half vertically)

Exam Tip

Make sure you can identify all the structures mentioned on this page if you are presented with a diagram of the kidney and its associated structures, or a diagram with a vertical cross-section of the kidney itself.

 

 

 

 

 

转载自savemyexams

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