# AQA A Level Maths: Pure复习笔记8.2.1 Integration as the limit of a sum

### Integration as the limit of a sum

#### Finding the area under a curve

• Definite integration allows us to find the area under a curve •  An estimate for the area under the curve is the sum of the rectangular areas • If the number of rectangles increases and their width decreases, the estimate is more accurate • The sum of the rectangle areas will have a limit, however small they get
• The sum will become closer and closer to the area under the curve
• This is called the limit of the sum

#### What is integration as the limit of a sum? • The width of a rectangle can be considered as a small increase along the x-axis
• This is denoted by δx
• The height (length) will be the y-coordinate at x1 – ie f(x1) (rather than f(x1+δx))
• If we use four of these small rectangles between a and b we get • As more rectangles are used …
• … δx gets smaller and smaller, ie δx → 0
• … n, the number of rectangles, gets bigger and bigger, ie n → ∞
• … the sum of the area of the rectangles becomes closer to the area under the curve • This is the meaning of integration as the limit of a sum

#### How do questions use integration as the limit of a sum?

• STEP 1        Recognise the notation
• STEP 2        Convert to a definite integral
• STEP 3        Find the value of the integral #### Worked Example   