IB DP Chemistry: SL复习笔记10.1.9 Organic Families - Organic Nitrogen Compounds

Organic Nitrogen Compounds

Amines

  • There are three organic nitrogen families that you need to know: amines, amides and nitriles
  • Amine is the name given to compounds containing the functional group amino, -NH2
  • Amines are derived from ammonia where one H in ammonia (NH3)has been replaced by an R (alkyl) group
  • The general formula of an amine is CnH2n+1NH2 which can be shortened to just RNH2
  • The nomenclature of an amine follows the pattern alkyl + amine or amino + alkane
    • E.g. propylamine or aminopropane

Amides

  • Amide is the name given to compounds containing the functional group carboxamide, -CONH2
  • Amides are a combination of amino and carbonyl groups
  • The general formula of an amide is CnH2n+1CONH2 which can be shortened to just RCONH2
  • The nomenclature of an amide follows the pattern alkan + amide

Nitriles

  • Nitriles are compounds containing the functional group nitrile, -CN
  • This is the same CN group that is called a cyanide group as an ion, just as hydroxyl group, OH is called hydroxide in inorganic chemistry
  • The general formula of an nitrile is CnH2n+1CN which can be shortened to just RCN
  • The nomenclature of a nitrile follows the pattern alkane + nitrile (some people leave out the 'e' on the alkane)
    • E.g ethanenitrile or ethannitrile

Organic Nitrogen Compounds Examples

10.1.9-Organic-Nitrogen-Compounds-Examples-Table

Exam Tip

Be careful about counting all the carbons when naming a nitrile. For example C3H7CN is butanenitrile not propanenitrile as the longest chain is 4 carbons.

 

 

 

 

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