IB DP Physics: HL复习笔记5.2.7 Series & Parallel Circuits

Series & Parallel Circuits

  • The following statements for series and parallel circuits are a consequence of Kirchhoff's first and second law
  • In a series circuit:
    • The current is the same at any point
    • The potential difference is split across all components depending on their resistance
  • In a parallel circuit:
    • The total current is equal to the sum of the currents in each parallel branch of the circuit
    • The potential difference across each loop is the same

Series and Parallel Circuit Rules

  • The table below summarises the rules for calculating current, potential difference (i.e. voltage) and resistance within series and parallel circuits

5.3.2-Series-_-Parallel-Circuits-Summary-Table_2Advantages of Parallel Circuits

  • Parallel circuits are incredibly useful for home wiring systems
    • A single power source supplies all lights and appliances with the same potential difference
    • If one light breaks, current can still flow through the rest of the lights and appliances

Series and Parallel Cells

  • Cells can also be connected in series or parallel
    • If the cells are connected in series, the total potential difference between the ends of the chain of cells is the sum of the potential difference across each cell
    • If the cells are connected in parallel, the total potential difference across the arrangement is the same as for one cell