【5月AP备考】微观经济学知识点总结:Deadweight Loss

A.What is deadweight loss? (定义)
Deadweight Loss (无谓损失),又称为福利净损失 (Welfare Loss),是指由于市场未处于最优运行状态(Market Equilibrium)而引起的社会成本。所产生的社会福利损失具体体现在消费者剩余(Consumer Surplus)和生产者剩余(Producer Surplus)的减少。 

B.Why it is so important?(相关考题)

Deadweight Loss是一个相对抽象的概念,并和许多知识点存在联系。在历年的AP考试当中,这个知识点却是一个必不可少的考点。以下是历年真题当中出现过与Deadweight Loss相关的考题,大家看完这篇文章之后,不妨做一下真题,有不懂的问题欢迎在AP群里面提出,和同学们老师们一起探讨。 

·与Deadweight Loss相关的Multiple-Choice Questions

Ø (2010) Q3&4

Ø (2015) Q57

Ø (2012) Q48

·与Deadweight Loss相关的 Free-Response Questions

Ø (2018) Q1

Ø (2015) Q2

Ø (2014) Q1

Ø (2012) Q1

 

C.What may cause deadweight loss?
1. A Binding Price (Price Floor & Price Ceiling)
• Price CeilingsØDefinition:A price ceiling is meant to set a price below the equilibrium.

Ø Example: Rent Control

Ø Welfare Analysis (measure the deadweight loss)

• Price Floors

Ø A price floor is meant to set a price above the equilibrium.

Ø Example: Minimum Wage

Ø Welfare Analysis (measure the deadweight loss)

 

2. A Tax or Subsidy
· TaxØ Tax: Market Outcome

 

Ø Welfare Analysis (measure the deadweight loss)

 

· Subsidy

Ø Subsidy: Market Outcome

Ø Welfare Analysis (measure the deadweight loss)

 

3. Externality
· Positive ExternalityØ Positive Externality: Market Outcome

Ø Welfare Analysis (measure the deadweight loss)

· Negative Externality

Ø Negative Externality: Market Outcome

Ø Welfare Analysis (measure the deadweight loss)

4. Artificial Scarcity as a Result of Monopoly Pricing
Ø Monopoly’s market outcome and prefect competition market outcome compared

Ø Welfare Analysis (measure the deadweight loss)


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