AQA A Level Chemistry复习笔记7.7.5 Anticancer Drugs

Action of Anticancer Drugs

 

  • In the 1960s the drug cis-platin was discovered, which has been extremely effective in treating a number of different types cancer such as testicular, ovarian, cervical, breast, lung and brain cancer
  • Cancer cells grow and replicate much faster than normal cells
  • Cis-platin is a square planar molecule that has a geometric isomer with the side groups in different positions

6.2-Chemistry-of-Transition-Elements-Cis-and-Trans-Platin-Current-SP

The structures of cis-platin and trans-platin

  • The cis-platin works by binding to the nitrogen atoms on the bases in DNA
  • The cis-platin passes through the cell membrane and undergoes ligand exchange where the chlorines are replaced by water molecules
  • The nitrogen is a better ligand than water and forms dative covalent bonds with the cis-platin
  • The cis-platin distorts the shape of the DNA and prevents the DNA from replicating

6.2-Chemistry-of-Transition-Elements-Cis-Platin-Mode-of-Action-Current-SP

The process by which cis-platin binds to DNA and prevents replication

 

Adverse Effects

  • Cis-platin binds to healthy cells as well as cancerous cells, but affects cancer cells more as they are replicating faster
  • Unfortunately, this means that other healthy cells which replicate quickly, such as hair follicles, are also affected by cis-platin
  • This is why hair loss is a side-effect of people undergoing cancer treatment
  • Despite this drawback, cisplatin is a highly effective drug and society needs to find a balance between the adverse effects of drugs and their therapeutic value
  • New therapeutic pathways are constantly under development that aim to deliver drugs that target cancer cells while leaving healthy cells untouched

 

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