Edexcel IGCSE Biology 复习笔记 1.2.1 Eukaryotic Organisms

Edexcel IGCSE Biology 复习笔记 1.2.1 Eukaryotic Organisms

Common Features of Eukaryotic Organisms: Basics

  • All living organisms can be grouped or 'classified' using a classification system that consists of five kingdoms. These five kingdoms are:
    • Animals
    • Plants
    • Fungi
    • Protoctists
    • Prokaryotes

     

  • The first four kingdoms in this list (the animals, plants, fungi and protoctists) can actually be grouped together, as they are all eukaryotic organisms (also known as eukaryotes)

The-Kingdoms-of-Eukarya

 

Animals, plants, fungi and protoctists are all eukaryotes

 

  • Eukaryotic organisms can be multicellular or single-celled and are made up of cells that contain a nucleus with a distinct membrane

 

 

An-animal-and-plant-cell-as-seen-under-a-light-microscope

 

An animal cell (left) and plant cell (right) as seen under a light microscope. They are both eukaryotic cells as they both have a distinct membrane-bound nucleus.

 

  • Prokaryotic organisms (also known as prokaryotes) are in a separate kingdom and are different from eukaryotes as they are always single-celled and do not contain a nucleus (instead, the nuclear material of prokaryotic cells is found in the cytoplasm)
    • Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms

     

  • Prokaryotic cells are substantially smaller than eukaryotic cells

转载自savemyexam

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