# AQA A Level Biology复习笔记1.1.3 Monosaccharides

### Monosaccharides: Common Examples

• Sugars can be classified as reducing or non-reducing; this classification is dependent on their ability to donate electrons
• Reducing sugars can donate electrons (the carbonyl group becomes oxidised), the sugars become the reducing agent
• Thus reducing sugars can be detected using Benedict’s test as they reduce the soluble copper sulphate to insoluble brick-red copper oxide

•  Examples of reducing sugars include: glucose, fructose and galactose
• Fructose and galactose have the same molecular formula as glucose however they have a different structural formula
• The different arrangement of atoms in these monosaccharides gives them slightly different properties

• Non-reducing sugars cannot donate electrons, therefore they cannot be oxidised
• To be detected non-reducing sugars must first be hydrolysed to break the disaccharide into its two monosaccharides before a Benedict’s test can be carried out
• Example: sucrose

The mnemonic to remember the definitions for oxidation and reduction