AQA A Level Chemistry复习笔记3.1.1 Functional Groups

Organic Definitions & Terminology

 

  • Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds
  • Carbon forms a vast number of compounds because it can form strong covalent bonds with itself
  • This enables it to form long chains of carbon atoms, and hence an almost infinite variety of carbon compounds are known

10.1.1-Catenation-in-Carbon-1

 

An almost infinite variety of chains, branches and rings is possible

Homologous series

  • A homologous series is a group of organic compounds that have the same functional group, but each successive member differs by CH2

3.1-An-Introduction-to-AS-Level-Organic-Chemistry-Ethanol-and-Propanol

Ethanol and propanol belong to the same homologous series

 

Homologous Series of Alkanes

10.1.1-Homologous-Series-of-Alkanes-2

  • Things we can say about a homologous series:
    • Each member has the same functional group
    • Each member has the same general formula
    • Each member has similar chemical properties
    • Each successive member differs by  -CH2 –
    • Members have gradually changing physical properties, for example, boiling point, melting point and density

     

  • As a homologous series is ascended, the size of the molecule increases
  • This has an effect on the physical properties, such as boiling point and density

Functional Groups

  • Functional groups determine the physical and chemical properties of molecules
  • The table below shows a summary of common functional groups found in compounds
  • R is any other atom or group of atoms (except for hydrogen)

Functional Groups found in Compounds Table

3.1-An-Introduction-to-AS-Level-Organic-Chemistry-Functional-Groups

Hydrocarbons

  • Hydrocarbons are compounds that are made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms ONLY

3.1-An-Introduction-to-AS-Level-Organic-Chemistry-Hydrocarbons-and-Non-Hydrocarbon

The diagram shows examples of hydrocarbons

Ethanol is NOT a hydrocarbon as the molecule also contains an oxygen atom and is not solely made up of carbon and hydrogen

 

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