【IGCSE经济】Speaking about Economic Systems

刚刚进入IGCSE经济的学习同学们一定有很多困惑。今天我们就来讲一讲经济学的Economic system中的planned economy与其优缺点(考试中经常会出现的问题!!)。



Definition:An economic system describes the way in which an economy is organised and run,including alternative views of how resources are best allocated.


简单来说就是如何回答三个基本经济问题来解决资源稀缺的问题:What to produce?How should we produce? For whom should we produce?


首先是PlannedEconomy计划经济:Planned Economy emphasizes on centralisation资源公有化。一切资源都由中央政府管辖分配。但是有一点,pure planned economy does not exist in the real life.


Governmentand organisations are responsible for:

·      资源分配The allocation of resources

·      收入分布 The distribution of incomeand wages

·      长期经济发展 Long-run Economic growth

·      生产目标 Production Targets



Advantagesof Planned Economy:


Nounemployment: Under a planned economy, unemployment is not an issue. 因为一切资源都是中央政府分配,所以每个人都会被分配到一个工作,所以在计划经济中失业并不是一个问题。


Economics of scale: Benefits gained from falling long run average costs as the scale of output increases.计划经济。许多同学可能对计划经济不明觉厉,其实它指的就是随着公司的扩大平均成本降低而达到更高的收益与利润。在计划经济中政府运行的都是大型企业,比如说国家电网公司或者邮政公司,还有垄断企业等等。


Prevent Wastage: The country would only provide goods and  services that is necessary for people’s living(只生产必需品工人们基本生活),there is no competition therefore less wastage would be provided.


Social Equality: 社会平等性。由于一切资源,工作,收入等等都是中央分配,所以说每个人都分会被配到一样的必需品(受教育的权利,接受医疗条件的权力与就业情况等等)。A planned economic system enables basic needs to be met for everyone in society.


Employment of resources: 对于资源的分配政府可以有效地利用现有资源安排factors of production(land, labour,capital and enterprise),保证每一个factor都被充分利用。Thus, fullemployment of resource can be maintained and economic growth can be planned.




Lack of freedom and choices: Because the central government just offer necessities that are sufficient for consumers to live, the choices of goods and servicesare very limited. 因为一切物品都有国家来生产销售,销售的物品之间没有竞争,所销售的物品也只是必需品,缺乏多样性,所以说消费者没有选择余地。 The samesituation also applied to the choice of careers(people do not have freedom tochoose their own job because all the resources are allocated by the centralgovernment). 还有,一般在计划经济中的国家自给自足,限制进口与出口贸易,所以这也是物品缺乏多样的一个原因。


Lack of incentives: Due to the control by the central government and centralproduction, everything is allocated equally. Hence there is no competition between the companies and extreme low revenue and profit discourage the firms to be innovative and they have got no incentive to produce goods and services in a higher quality.没有动力生产更高质量的物品与服务,这种情况会限制人们的生活水准,甚至倒退。


Queuing:Because of the limited production of central government and the lack of incentives to produce,basic food stuffs like bread and meat are in excess demand relative to supply.简单来说就是供不应。中央政府的生产力有限,生产者因为价格限制上涨的原因没有动力生产,然而每个人都对必需品有需求,所以人们买东西时都要”排队”购买。 Queuing becomes away of life.


最后的最后,务必记住pure planned economy现实生活中并不存在,它只是理论上的一种经济体系!!