【全网首发】2018AIME II 2卷真题及答案

2018 AIME II 2卷真题及答案

答案解析请参考文末

Problem1

Points $A$, $B$, and $C$ lie in that order along a straight path where the distance from $A$ to $C$ is $1800$ meters. Ina runs twice as fast as Eve, and Paul runs twice as fast as Ina. The three runners start running at the same time with Ina starting at $A$ and running toward $C$, Paul starting at $B$ and running toward $C$, and Eve starting at $C$ and running toward $A$. When Paul meets Eve, he turns around and runs toward $A$. Paul and Ina both arrive at $B$ at the same time. Find the number of meters from $A$ to $B$.

Problem2

Let $a_{0} = 2$, $a_{1} = 5$, and $a_{2} = 8$, and for $n > 2$ define $a_{n}$ recursively to be the remainder when $4$($a_{n-1}$ + $a_{n-2}$ + $a_{n-3}$) is divided by $11$. Find $a_{2018}$$a_{2020}$$a_{2022}$.

Problem3

Find the sum of all positive integers $b < 1000$ such that the base-$b$ integer $36_{b}$ is a perfect square and the base-$b$ integer $27_{b}$ is a perfect cube.

Problem4

In equiangular octagon $CAROLINE$, $CA = RO = LI = NE =$ $\sqrt{2}$ and $AR = OL = IN = EC = 1$. The self-intersecting octagon $CORNELIA$ enclosed six non-overlapping triangular regions. Let $K$ be the area enclosed by $CORNELIA$, that is, the total area of the six triangular regions. Then $K =$ $\dfrac{a}{b}$, where $a$ and $b$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $a + b$.

Problem5

Suppose that $x$, $y$, and $z$ are complex numbers such that $xy = -80 - 320i$, $yz = 60$, and $zx = -96 + 24i$, where $i$ $=$ $\sqrt{-1}$. Then there are real numbers $a$ and $b$ such that $x + y + z = a + bi$. Find $a^2 + b^2$.

Problem6

A real number $a$ is chosen randomly and uniformly from the interval $[-20, 18]$. The probability that the roots of the polynomial

$x^4 + 2ax^3 + (2a - 2)x^2 + (-4a + 3)x - 2$

are all real can be written in the form $\dfrac{m}{n}$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m + n$.

Problem 7

Triangle $ABC$ has side lengths $AB = 9$, $BC =$$5\sqrt{3}$, and $AC = 12$. Points $A = P_{0}, P_{1}, P_{2}, ... , P_{2450} = B$ are on segment $\overline{AB}$with $P_{k}$ between $P_{k-1}$ and $P_{k+1}$ for $k = 1, 2, ..., 2449$, and points $A = Q_{0}, Q_{1}, Q_{2}, ... , Q_{2450} = C$ are on segment $\overline{AC}$ with $Q_{k}$between $Q_{k-1}$ and $Q_{k+1}$ for $k = 1, 2, ..., 2449$. Furthermore, each segment $\overline{P_{k}Q_{k}}$, $k = 1, 2, ..., 2449$, is parallel to $\overline{BC}$. The segments cut the triangle into $2450$ regions, consisting of $2449$ trapezoids and $1$ triangle. Each of the $2450$ regions has the same area. Find the number of segments $\overline{P_{k}Q_{k}}$, $k = 1, 2, ..., 2450$, that have rational length.

Problem8

A frog is positioned at the origin of the coordinate plane. From the point $(x, y)$, the frog can jump to any of the points $(x + 1, y)$, $(x + 2, y)$, $(x, y + 1)$, or $(x, y + 2)$. Find the number of distinct sequences of jumps in which the frog begins at $(0, 0)$and ends at $(4, 4)$.

Problem9

Octagon $ABCDEFGH$ with side lengths $AB = CD = EF = GH = 10$ and $BC = DE = FG = HA = 11$ is formed by removing 6-8-10 triangles from the corners of a $23$ x $27$ rectangle with side $\overline{AH}$ on a short side of the rectangle, as shown. Let $J$ be the midpoint of $\overline{AH}$, and partition the octagon into 7 triangles by drawing segments $\overline{JB}$, $\overline{JC}$, $\overline{JD}$, $\overline{JE}$, $\overline{JF}$, and $\overline{JG}$. Find the area of the convex polygon whose vertices are the centroids of these 7 triangles.

Problem 10

Find the number of functions $f(x)$ from $\{ 1,2,3,4,5 \}$ to $\{ 1,2,3,4,5 \}$ that satisfy $f(f(x)) = f(f(f(x)))$ for all$x$ in $\{ 1,2,3,4,5 \}$.

Problem 11

Find the number of permutations of $1,2,3,4,5,6$ such that for each $k$ with $1\leq k\leq 5$, at least one of the first $k$ terms of the permutation is greater than $k$.

Problem 12

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral with $AB=CD=10$, $BC=14$, and $AD=2\sqrt{65}$. Assume that the diagonals of $ABCD$ intersect at point $P$, and that the sum of the areas of $\triangle APB$ and $\triangle CPD$ equals the sum of the areas of $\triangle BPC$ and $\triangle APD$. Find the area of quadrilateral $ABCD$.

Problem 13

Misha rolls a standard, fair six-sided die until she rolls $1$-$2$-$3$ in that order on three consecutive rolls. The probability that she will roll the die an odd number of times is $\frac{m}{n}$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m+n$.

Problem 14

The incircle of $\omega$ of $\triangle ABC$ is tangent to $\overline{BC}$ at $X$. Let $Y \neq X$ be the other intersection of $\overline{AX}$ with $\omega$.Points $P$ and $Q$ lie on $\overline{AB}$ and $\overline{AC}$, respectively, so that $\overline{PQ}$ is tangent to $\omega$ at $Y$. Assume that $AP=3, PB = 4, AC=8$, and $AQ = \tfrac{m}{n}$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m+n$.

Problem 15

 

Find the number of functions $f$ from $\{0,1,2,3,4,5,6\}$ to the integers such that $f(0)=0, f(6)=12$, and
\[|x-y| \le |f(x)-f(y)| \le 3 |x-y| \]for all $x$ and $y$ in $\{0,1,2,3,4,5,6\}$.

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