Essay&Report的评分标准和写作框架

Essay一直以来都是让中国学生头大的存在,很多学生觉得自己明明完全清楚题目中的知识点,但是最终得到的分数却不尽如人意。

因此把握essay的答题思路,理清essay结构就显得尤为重要。

今天和同学们分享一道AS部分microeconomics的essay。(Edexcel考局)

ExtractA

Step1、审题+结构确定

正如中文写作一样,essay审题是最基本、最重要的环节。

必须搞清楚题目需要你回答的到底是什么,才能保证自己的答案在不偏离主题的前提下更全面、丰满。因此,各位同学在拿到essay题目之后一定要首先花时间研读,磨刀不误砍柴工。

回到这一题上来,这一题是让我们从external costs的角度来分析nuclear power is over-produced or under-provided。并且题中明确要求用diagram,因此我们需要在答案中画出准确的图像并对其进行解释。

在进行完审题这一步骤之后,我们可以从knowledge, application和analysis三个方面给自己的essay设置一个框架结构。

这一题的结构我们可以分为以下三个部分:

1. relevant knowledge about external cost with diagrams+ possible reasons analysis related to Extract C

2. Taking the external cost as well as Extracts into consideration, to confirm whether it is over-produced or under-produced and further discuss the possible cause and impacts

3. Further conclusion

Step2、正式写作

■ Part 1、relevant knowledge of external cost

Firstly,you have to explain the definition of external costs as well as draw a correct and clear diagram. Make sure that every elements should be included especially the welfare loss.

Secondly,you have to employ analysis of the external cost of nuclear power according to the Extracts.

For example:

• Risk of nuclear accident – local schools and businesses close, impact on property prices.

• High doses of nuclear radiation leaks increase the risk of cancer – loss of family income, employment, contribution to local economy, costs to NHS.

• Cost of storage for future generations – opportunity cost of resources (land) tied to this, resulting in loss of income to farmers for example.

• Opportunity cost of subsidies to nuclear industry, subsidy cuts to solar businesses.

■ Part2、Discuss whether it is over or under produced

For its external cost, it may be over-produced, but for the costs of its substitutes, it may be under-produced. You have to analyse both according to the Extracts.

Taking the costs of substitutes as an example:

Reduced external costs in production of substitutes/external benefits may mean it is under-produced:

• Curb greenhouse gas emissions which are causing climate change, by using nuclear, resulting in less flooding or storm damage reducing insurance costs to businesses. Extract C

• Building new nuclear reactors allow positive local economic effects from job creation.

• Provide ‘affordable energy’ helping businesses stay open thus protecting jobs and ending fuel poverty resulting in lower demands for health care.Other evaluation points might include:

• Magnitude – depends on relative size of external cost.

• Measurement difficult – putting a value on external costs.

• Energy efficiency measures more preferable.

• Short term/long term costs and benefits.

Part 3、Further Conclusion

You have to make a deep conclusion according to or your analysis above to make your essay more organized and considered

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