澳大利亚地球与环境科学奥林匹克活动 (Australian Science Olympiads Earth and Environmental Science, ASOE) 是澳大利 亚科学奥林匹克活动的其中一个环节，澳大利亚科学奥林匹克活动 (Australian Science Olympiads) 由澳大利亚科学创新 学会 (Australian Science Innovation, ASI) 主办，其总部设立在澳大利亚国立大学。该竞赛时间即将公布，赛事真题开放中！
Imagine it is sometime later in the 2"century and humans are colonising the solar system and preparing to launch probes to other star systenms...
Roxanne Stone has just returmed to Earth from a stint on Mars as a planetary geologist, specialising in whole of plant motions. She was happy to be home and to catch up with family, especially her younger sister Gemma, who is also studying planetary geology as part of her Earth and Environmental Seienee course at school.
1. Roxanne found adjusting to life back on Earth a bit challenging. What did she tell Gemma that she found different about being home compared to being on Mars?
【a】 Earth's Gravity. Mars is a rocky planct but only has about 38% of Earth's gravity so getting used to Earth's gravity again is an issue
【b】Earth's smell. Mars does not have a breathable atmosphere so residents only ever smell inside their habitats, so getting used to other smells again is novel
【c】 Earth's water. Mars does not have liquid surface water so seeing open bodies of natural surface water again is great
【d】Mars is super dusty. The dust is so fine and abrasive it can cause serious, even fatal, lung damage. It is hard to get used to not having to worry about dust exposure
【e】Earth's protective atmosphere. Mars has a very thin atmosphere so even small meteors, that would bun up in Earth's atmosphere, hit the ground on Mars and pose a constant threat to habitat integrity. It is strange to be less alert to the danger
【f】All of the above
2. Gemma wanted to know what seasons are like on Mars. Roxame explained that..…
【a】 the orbit of Mars about the Sun is quite elliptical so it has extreme seasons
【b】the axis of rotation of Mars is tiled at 25° so it has seasons just like Earth c...a Martian year is almost twice as long as Earths so it has longer seasons
【d】all of a, bande
【e】the orbit of Mars is circular so it does not have seasons
【f】 Mars is not tilted on its axis and it has a circular orbit so it does not have seasons
3. Gemma understands that Mars has an atmosphere that is 96o carbon dioxide(CO2) but was puzzled when Rxanne said they could only go outside in space suits like the ones they wear when walking around on the Moon. When she asked Roxanne why she couldn't go outside in somcthing like a wetsuit with an air tank attached Roxanne's answer was..…
【a】the Martian atmosphere is very thin, with a surface pressure less than 19% of Earth's, so if you went outside unprotected by a pressure suit your blood, which is mostly water at a beody temperature of-36.5° C, would boil at such a low pressure
【b】cven on a good day the air temperature can be quite cold but at night temperatures plunge to minus 60℃ so you could very quickly freeze to death without a protective suit
【c】 Mars has so much more N2 in the atmosphere than Earth that it causes nitrogen bubbles to form in the blood if you are exposed to it. The bubbles can cause brain damage and death
【d】Mars has no magnctie field so it is not protected from cosmic radiation the way Earth is, Going outside without radiation protection in the form of a space suit is simply too dangerous
【e】 Answers a, bandd
【f】 The Martian Congressional Republie is just too safety conscious