学术 | 写好新SAT作文必收藏,21种修辞手法及例句 (上)

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    新SAT的写作部分,要求考生先阅读一篇600 - 800字之间的议论文,通常来自美国各大报刊杂志或权威学术期刊,属于标准的学术类文章。然后考生须分析作者运用了怎样的修辞手法和表达方式建立其论点,以及是如何说服读者的。相应的,The College Board会从阅读理解、分析逻辑和书面语言这三个方面对考生进行评分。

As you read the passage below, consider how Eric Klinenberg uses

  • evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims.

  • reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence.

  • stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed.

新SAT作文要求

    在旧SAT中,考生只需要面对一个话题,提出自己的观点并加以论证即可。这种情况下,考生如果提前背好大量的例证和漂亮的语言模板,就可以极大地扩充文章的篇幅,并冲击高分。

    但面对新SAT这几乎是翻天覆地的变化,不少考生不知道该如何下手。这就需要考生了解并掌握英文的修辞手法及其用法,并从专业的评论性写作角度出发,进行大量有针对性和反馈性地练习。

    下面Vicky老师将为大家介绍21种中英文对照的、常见的英文修辞手法及例句,让你一步步摸清新SAT写作的“套路”。

1. Simile 明喻

    Similes are one of the most common forms of figurative language and can be found just about anywhere: plays, poems, song lyrics, even everyday conversations. A simile is a figure of speech that compares two different things in an interesting way. The object of a simile is to spark an interesting connection in a reader's or listener's mind.

    明喻是一种最常见的修辞手法,适用于多种形式:戏剧、诗歌、歌词、甚至是日常对话。明喻用一种有趣的方式比较两种不同的事物,目的在于启发读者或听者在这两种事物之间建立一种有趣的联系

Example 例句:

 

• as busy as a bee (it's commonly thought that bees are very industrious)

像蜜蜂一样忙碌 (人们普遍认为蜜蜂很勤劳)

• This contract is as solid as the ground we stand on.

这份合同如同我们脚下的土地一样坚实。

• It has long leaves that sway in the wind like slim finger-reaching to touch something.

它有长长的叶子在风中摆动,像伸出纤细的手指去触摸什么东西似的。

2. Metaphor 隐喻

    The definition of a metaphor is a figure of speech containing an implied comparison, in which a word or phrase ordinarily and primarily used of one thing is applied to another. For example, "the curtain of night" or "all the world's a stage."

    隐喻的定义是“隐含比较的比喻“,将一个事物的词或短语应用于另一个事物上。比如“夜幕”或“世界是一个舞台” (出自莎士比亚)

Example 例句:

 

• German guns and German planes rained down bombs, shells and bullets.

德国枪炮和德国飞机降下枪弹雨林。

• Time is a thief.

时间是小偷 。

• Rollercoaster of emotions.

如过山车般的情绪

3. Metonymy 借喻

    The definition of a metonymy is a figure of speech in which one thing is replaced with a word closely associated with it. An example of a metonymy is referring to the King as "the Crown."

    借喻是指一个词被另一个与它密切相关的词取代,比如人们通常用“皇冠”指代国王。

Example 例句:

 

• The pen is mightier than the sword. - This sentence has two examples of metonymy: The "pen" stands in for "the written word."

笔比剑更有威力 - 这个句子有两个借代的例子:“笔”代表“文字”。

• The White House - in place of the President or others who work there

用白宫指代总统或其他在那里工作的人

• Lend me your ears! - Ears - for giving attention

借用你们的耳朵!- 用“耳朵”指代“注意力”

4. Synecdoche 提喻

    The definition of a Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part.

    提喻是指用一部分指代整体或整体的一部分。

Example 例句:

 

• Calling a car “wheels” is a synecdoche because a part of a car “wheels” stands for the whole car.

用“轮子”指代汽车,因为“轮子”是车的一部分。

• Music is my bread and butter – Bread represents food in general or money.

音乐是我的面包和黄油——用面包代表食物或金钱。

• The phrase "hired hands" can be used to refer to workmen.

“雇帮手”指代雇用工人。

5. Synesthesia 通感

    The definition of a Synesthesia is a figure of speech in which one sense is described using terms from another. Examples of synesthesia often are in the form of a simile, as this is an easy way to link two previously unconnected images. For example, you might say, “The silence was as thick as a forest.”

    通感是用其中一个感官的感受去描述另一个感官的感受,通常是以明喻的形式联系起两个毫无关系的事物,例如,你可能会说:“寂静就像森林一样茂密。”

Example 例句:

 

• You are looking cool -The visual sensation is blended with the sense of touch.

你看起来很酷——视觉感与触觉的混合。

• His words cut the air like a dagger.

他的话像匕首一样使人窒息。

• Thy voice is like wine to me.

这个声音对我来说就像美酒一样

6. Personification拟人化

    The definition of a Personification is a figure of speech in which a thing, an idea or an animal is given human attributes.

    拟人化是给事物、思想或动物赋予了人的属性的一种修辞手法。

Example 例句:

 

• Look at my car. She is a beauty, isn’t it so?

看看我的车。她是个美人,不是吗?

• The wind whispered through dry grass.

风悄悄地穿过干草。

• The flowers danced in the gentle breeze.

花儿在微风中翩翩起舞。

7. Hyperbole 夸张

    The definition of a Hyperbole is a figure of speech which involves an exaggeration of ideas for the sake of emphasis.

    夸张是一种用于强调、突出目的等修辞手法。

Example 例句:

 

• My grandmother is as old as the hills.

我的祖母像山坡一样老。

• Your suitcase weighs a ton!

你的箱子重一吨!

• I am dying of shame.

我羞得要死了。

8. Parallelism 排比

    The definition of a Parallelism is a figure of speech that use of components in a sentence are grammatically the same; or similar in their construction, sound, meaning or meter.

    排比是一种使用多个语法成分类似或者构造、声音、意义类似的修辞手法。

Example 例句:

 

• Like father, like son.

有其父,必有其子

• Whether in class, at work or at home, Michael was always busy.

无论是在课堂上、在工作中还是在家里,Michael总是很忙。

• Easy come, easy go.

来得容易去得也容易

9. Irony 讽刺

    The definition of a Irony is a figure of speech in which words are used in such a way that their intended meaning is different from the actual meaning of the words. It may also be a situation that may end up in quite a different way than what is generally anticipated. In simple words, it is a difference between the appearance and the reality.

    讽刺用于描述和实际意义完全不同的情况,或者和预期完全不一样的结果,简单来说,就是表面和现实并不相同。

Example 例句:

 

• “Oh great! Now you have broken my new camera.”

“噢,太棒了!你把我的新相机弄坏了。”

• You laugh at a person who slipped stepping on a banana peel and the next thing you know, you slipped too.

你嘲笑一个踩在香蕉皮上滑倒的人,下一秒,你也会重蹈覆辙。

• I posted a video on YouTube about how boring and useless YouTube is.

我在YouTube上发布了一段视频用来说明YouTube是多么无聊和无用。

10. Euphemism 委婉

    The definition of Euphemism is an inoffensive or indirect expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive or too harsh.

    委婉是一种用无害的或间接的方式来替代过于冒犯或苛刻的表达的一种修辞手法。

Example 例句:

 

• Passed away instead of died

用“去世“代替”死亡“

• Correctional facility instead of jail

用“矫正所”代替“坐牢”

• On the streets instead of homeless

用“露宿街头”代替“无家可归”

    以上是Vicky老师本周介绍的10个修辞手法及例句。下周还将继续介绍更多的修辞手法,请持续关注梦途成长中心微信公众号哦!

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