学术 | 写好新SAT作文必收藏,21种修辞手法及例句 (上)


    新SAT的写作部分,要求考生先阅读一篇600 - 800字之间的议论文,通常来自美国各大报刊杂志或权威学术期刊,属于标准的学术类文章。然后考生须分析作者运用了怎样的修辞手法和表达方式建立其论点,以及是如何说服读者的。相应的,The College Board会从阅读理解、分析逻辑和书面语言这三个方面对考生进行评分。

As you read the passage below, consider how Eric Klinenberg uses

  • evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims.

  • reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence.

  • stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed.





1. Simile 明喻

    Similes are one of the most common forms of figurative language and can be found just about anywhere: plays, poems, song lyrics, even everyday conversations. A simile is a figure of speech that compares two different things in an interesting way. The object of a simile is to spark an interesting connection in a reader's or listener's mind.


Example 例句:


• as busy as a bee (it's commonly thought that bees are very industrious)

像蜜蜂一样忙碌 (人们普遍认为蜜蜂很勤劳)

• This contract is as solid as the ground we stand on.


• It has long leaves that sway in the wind like slim finger-reaching to touch something.


2. Metaphor 隐喻

    The definition of a metaphor is a figure of speech containing an implied comparison, in which a word or phrase ordinarily and primarily used of one thing is applied to another. For example, "the curtain of night" or "all the world's a stage."

    隐喻的定义是“隐含比较的比喻“,将一个事物的词或短语应用于另一个事物上。比如“夜幕”或“世界是一个舞台” (出自莎士比亚)

Example 例句:


• German guns and German planes rained down bombs, shells and bullets.


• Time is a thief.

时间是小偷 。

• Rollercoaster of emotions.


3. Metonymy 借喻

    The definition of a metonymy is a figure of speech in which one thing is replaced with a word closely associated with it. An example of a metonymy is referring to the King as "the Crown."


Example 例句:


• The pen is mightier than the sword. - This sentence has two examples of metonymy: The "pen" stands in for "the written word."

笔比剑更有威力 - 这个句子有两个借代的例子:“笔”代表“文字”。

• The White House - in place of the President or others who work there


• Lend me your ears! - Ears - for giving attention

借用你们的耳朵!- 用“耳朵”指代“注意力”

4. Synecdoche 提喻

    The definition of a Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part.


Example 例句:


• Calling a car “wheels” is a synecdoche because a part of a car “wheels” stands for the whole car.


• Music is my bread and butter – Bread represents food in general or money.


• The phrase "hired hands" can be used to refer to workmen.


5. Synesthesia 通感

    The definition of a Synesthesia is a figure of speech in which one sense is described using terms from another. Examples of synesthesia often are in the form of a simile, as this is an easy way to link two previously unconnected images. For example, you might say, “The silence was as thick as a forest.”


Example 例句:


• You are looking cool -The visual sensation is blended with the sense of touch.


• His words cut the air like a dagger.


• Thy voice is like wine to me.


6. Personification拟人化

    The definition of a Personification is a figure of speech in which a thing, an idea or an animal is given human attributes.


Example 例句:


• Look at my car. She is a beauty, isn’t it so?


• The wind whispered through dry grass.


• The flowers danced in the gentle breeze.


7. Hyperbole 夸张

    The definition of a Hyperbole is a figure of speech which involves an exaggeration of ideas for the sake of emphasis.


Example 例句:


• My grandmother is as old as the hills.


• Your suitcase weighs a ton!


• I am dying of shame.


8. Parallelism 排比

    The definition of a Parallelism is a figure of speech that use of components in a sentence are grammatically the same; or similar in their construction, sound, meaning or meter.


Example 例句:


• Like father, like son.


• Whether in class, at work or at home, Michael was always busy.


• Easy come, easy go.


9. Irony 讽刺

    The definition of a Irony is a figure of speech in which words are used in such a way that their intended meaning is different from the actual meaning of the words. It may also be a situation that may end up in quite a different way than what is generally anticipated. In simple words, it is a difference between the appearance and the reality.


Example 例句:


• “Oh great! Now you have broken my new camera.”


• You laugh at a person who slipped stepping on a banana peel and the next thing you know, you slipped too.


• I posted a video on YouTube about how boring and useless YouTube is.


10. Euphemism 委婉

    The definition of Euphemism is an inoffensive or indirect expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive or too harsh.


Example 例句:


• Passed away instead of died


• Correctional facility instead of jail


• On the streets instead of homeless








Vicky 姜瑞琪

梦途成长中心 资深学术导师





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