A-level & IGCSE经济 | 必考知识点一览表

2018年5月Alevel全球大考在即

这个考试的结果将拉开你未来大学申请的第一场序幕

想要赢得英美名校的offer

Alevel学习体系下的你

要深知

就在此刻

 

我们特别为你推出了圆桌课堂备考课程

 

圆桌课堂教学法的重点在于:

不使用任何教科书,所有的课程内容与问题、课后作业,全是由授课老师亲自编写。同时,不使用演讲式的授课方式,12 名学生和1名老师围着哈克尼斯圆桌(Harkness Table),以提问、讨论、辩论的方式教学。

 

我们特别制作了在线版的圆桌课堂,

仅有6名学生和1名老师围着专用在线教室,

以互相激发和逐个击破考纲要点的模式,

让你通过提问,辩论,讨论加深理解和记忆

 

更少的学生=更精准的教师指导

更多的讨论=更有效的学习效率

更牛的老师=更清晰的备考策略

 

如果你想获得更多备考资料的电子版,欢迎私信mango老师获取更多资源。

 

以下是牛津名师为大家准备的经济学的必考知识点,记得收藏后,每天拿出来熟悉熟悉哦!

必考定义一览表

  • Basic economic problem: choice and the allocation of resources
1.   Scarcity: asituation where there is not enough to satisfy everyone’s wants.

2.   The economicproblem: unlimited wants exceed scarce resources.

3.   Factors ofproduction: the economic resources of capital, enterprise, labour and land.

4.   Land: gifts ofnature available for production.

5.   Labour: allhuman effort mental and physical involved in producing goods and services.

6.   Enterprise; riskbearing and decision making in business.

7.   Occupationallymobile: capable of changing use.

8.   Geographicallyimmobile: incapable of moving from one location to another location.

9.   Capital: humanmade goods used in production.

10.Investment: spending on capital goods.

11.Depreciation: the value of replacing capital.

12.Productivity: output per worker hour.

13.Opportunity cost: the next best alternative forgone.

14.Economic good: a product which requires resourcesto produce it and therefore has an opportunity cost.

15.Free good: a product which does not requireresources to produce it and therefore has an opportunity cost.

16.Production possibility curve: a curve that showsthe maximum output of two types of products and combination of those productsthat can be produced with existing resources and technology.

17.A planned economy: an economy where the governmentmakes the crucial decisions, land and capital are state-owned and resources areallocated by directives.

18.A market economy: an economy where consumersdetermine what is produced, resources are allocated by the price mechanism andland and capital are privately owned.

19.A mixed economy: an economy in which both theprivate and public sectors play an important role.

  •  
  • The allocation of resources: how the market works; market failure

1.   Demand: thewillingness and ability to buy a product.

2.   Market demand:total demand for a product.

3.   An extension indemand: a rise in the quantity demanded caused by a fall in the price of theproduct itself.

4.   A contraction indemand: a fall in the quantity demanded caused by a rise in the price of theproduct itself.

5.   Supply: thewillingness and ability to sell a product.

6.   Market supply:total supply of the product.

7.   An extension insupply: a rise in the quantity supplied caused by a rise in the price of theproduct itself.

8.   A contraction insupply: a fall in the quantity supplied caused by a fall in the price of theproduct itself.

9.   Equilibriumprice: the price where demand and supply are equal.

10.Disequilibrium: a situation where demand and supplyare not equal.

11.Changes in demand: shifts in the demand curve.

12.An increase in demand: a rise in demand at anygiven price, causing the demand curve to shift to the right.

13.A decrease in demand: a fall in demand at any givenprice, causing the demand curve to shift to the left.

14.Disposable income: Income after income tax andnational insurance contributions have been deducted.

15.Normal good: a product whose demand increases whenincome increases and decreases when income falls.

16.Inferior good: a product whose demand decreaseswhen income increases and increases when income falls.

17.Substitute: a product that can be used in place ofanother.

18.Compliment: a product that is used in conjunctionwith another product.

19.Ageing population: an increase in the average ageof the population.

20.Birth rate: the number of life birth per thousandof the population in a year.

21.An increase in supply: a rise in supply at anygiven price, causing the supply curve to shift to the right.

22.A decrease in supply: a fall in supply at any givenprice causing the supply curve to shift to the left.

23.Changes in supply: changes in supply conditionscausing shifts in the supply curve.

24.Unit cost: the average cost of production. It isfound by dividing total cost by output.

25.Improvements in technology: advances in the qualityof capital goods and methods of production.

26.A tax: a payment to the government.

27.Indirect taxes: taxes on goods and services.

28.A subsidy: a payment by a government to encouragethe production or consumption of a product.

29.Price elasticity of demand: a measure of theresponsiveness of demand to a change in price.

30.Private costs: costs borne by those directlyconsuming or producing a product.

31.Private benefits: benefits received by those directlyconsuming or producing a product.

32.External costs: costs imposed on those who are notinvolved in the consumption and production activities of others directly.

33.External benefits: benefits enjoyed by those whoare not involved in the consumption and production activities of othersdirectly.

34.Social costs: the total costs to a society of aneconomic activity.

35.Social benefits: the total benefits to a society ofan economic activity.

36.Cost benefits analysis: a method of assessinginvestment projects which takes into account, social costs and benefits.

 

 

 

转自易思乐宁

 

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