2021 DNA DAY 写作竞赛 Annual DNA Day Essay Contest

2021 Annual DNA Day Essay Contest

2021 DNA DAY写作竞赛

DNA DAY

项目介绍

DNA Day 写作竞赛 Annual DNA Day Essay Contest 是一项为纪念2003年4月人类基因组计划的完成和1953年DNA双螺旋的发现的生物写作竞赛,比赛由美国人类遗传协会American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) 支持举办,至今已举办过13次,面向全球9-12年级的学生开放,比赛旨在挑战学生,研究,质疑和反思与人类遗传学有关的重要思想和问题。竞争性论文有望传达出实质性,合理性和基于证据的论点。通过三轮评审对论文进行评估,每篇论文至少由三名评委阅读。评分最高的论文通常由十几名或以上的评委评分。上海翰林学院的生物竞赛导师表示,这是一个纯正的美式赛事,非常有趣,适合生物爱好者,适合STEM类写作能力强的学生,学生如果后续的升学计划对生物相关专业有意向,参加这项竞赛不失为一个为自己提升生物学背景的好机会,含金量非常高。

DNA Day 论文大赛竞赛规则

竞赛语言:英文

竞赛形式:个人

竞赛内容:针对当年竞赛主题撰写相关论文

规则与要求:

  • 论文必须由一位学生撰写;不允许小组提交
  • 论文必须由老师或管理人员提交,如学生在家接受教育,父母可以提交论文
  • 字数不得超过750个字,字数包括文字引用,但不包括参考文献列表
  • 提交的文章中不得包含学生的姓名
  • 论文必须至少包含一个参考。参考文献应在文本引用和参考文献列表中明确记录。参考列表应在提交页面的“参考”部分中单独输入
  • APA或MLA样式可用于引用

请注意,论文中的文字可用于研究目的,学生文章可以在ASHG网站,新闻通讯或其他ASHG出版物上发布

2021 Question

All humans are 99.9% genetically identical at the DNA level. Remarkably, just a small fraction (0.1%) of our DNA contributes to the different characteristics among populations around the world and that make every person unique. Important discoveries in human genetics and genomics often rely on comparing groups of people, for example people with a given disease compared to people without the disease. These studies utilize genomic data from individuals who have contributed their DNA for research purposes, most of which (approximately 80%) are individuals of European ancestry. How does this population representation impact genomic findings? Can the data and results of these studies still be useful for studies in other populations from around the world? Discuss whether inclusion of more diverse populations in genetic and genomic studies holds a potential to benefit future genetic research and improve human health.

2021问题:

在DNA水平上,所有人类的基因同源性均为99.9%。值得注意的是,我们DNA的一小部分(0.1%)导致了世界各地人群的不同特征,这使每个人都与众不同。人类遗传学和基因组学的重要发现通常取决于对人群进行比较,例如,将患有特定疾病的人与没有疾病的人进行比较。这些研究利用了出于研究目的贡献了其DNA的个体的基因组数据,其中大多数(约80%)是欧洲血统的个体。这种总体代表性如何影响基因组发现? 这些研究的数据和结果是否仍可用于世界各地其他人群的研究?讨论在基因和基因组研究中纳入更多的种群是否有潜力造福未来的基因研究和改善人类健康

评分规则:

  • 三轮评分
  • 评委使用下面的标题来评估第二轮和第三轮评审中的每篇论文
标准 点数
科学内容的整体准确性 0-6
使用证据支持论点/答案;
专注于所选问题/主题的文章
0-6
写作质量(清晰的论文,作文,语法,语法,拼写) 0-5
参考和引用(质量和适当性) 0-3
总分: 20

历年问题集合

 

年份 问题

2019

Jonathan, age 50, has just been diagnosed with Huntington disease (HD). His genetic counselor, Karen, seeks Jonathan’s consent to disclose this diagnosis to his daughter, Sarah, who is 25. Jonathan refuses to allow Karen or anyone else on the medical staff to reveal this diagnosis to Sarah. (1) Present arguments for and against Jonathan’s position by discussing the relevant goals, rights, and duties of each of the parties in this case. (2) Then choose one argument to defend, using your knowledge of the scientific and medical aspects of HD. Be certain to use your knowledge of the scientific and medical aspects of HD to support your views.
2018 Traditionally, genetic testing for diagnosis or risk of disease has been done in conjunction with medical professionals, such as genetic counselors. These professionals are experts not only in genetics, but also in counseling patients and family members about the benefits and potential harms of learning about a disease risk. Today, this traditional route is not the only option: direct-to-consumer genetic testing, offered by several companies, does not require a medical professional. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a process by which companies can provide predictive testing for certain disorders, in addition to common traits such as straight or wavy hair.
2017 In the early 1990s, gene therapy was hailed as a potential treatment or cure for many genetic diseases and conditions. Unfortunately, problems during clinical trials, including the death of a patient due to a fatal immune reaction, forced scientists to re-think their strategies. Recent advances in biology have made gene therapy more promising than ever and expanded the field beyond its original concept of providing an additional, functional copy of a malfunctioning gene to specific cells. Choose one modern example of gene therapy (since 2005), describe the disease or condition researchers are attempting to treat, and explain how the therapy/approach might repair the underlying cause of the disease or condition.
2016 Choose a genetic test that is currently available for a condition or disease that does not cause symptoms until adulthood (i.e., an adult-onset condition such as hereditary breast cancer). Describe how the test works and how certain the test results are. Then, either defend or refute the recommendation below from ASHG’s recent position statement on pediatric genetic testing.

“Adolescents should be encouraged to defer predictive or pre-dispositional testing for adult-onset conditions until adulthood because of the complexity of the potential impact of the information at formative life stages.”

2015 In 1969, Jonathan Beckwith, James Shapiro, and Lawrence Eron isolated the first gene, the Lac Z gene from E.coli.  At that time, genes were thought to be discrete, contiguous segments of DNA that coded for functional protein products. Using our current understanding of how the human genome is structured and regulated, and what products it can produce, choose a phenomenon (a molecular process, structure, or product, not a disease) that expands on the traditional definition of a gene. Explain the phenomenon and provide three specific examples of it in the human genome
2014 Complex traits, such as blood pressure, height, cardiovascular disease, or autism, are the combined result of multiple genes and the environment.  For ONE complex human trait of your choosing, identify and explain the contributions of at least one genetic factor AND one environmental factor.  How does this interplay lead to a phenotype?  Keep in mind that the environment may include nutrition, psychological elements, and other non-genetic factors.  If the molecular or biological basis of the interaction between  the genetic and environmental factors is known, be sure to discuss it.  If not, discuss the gaps in our knowledge of how those factors influence your chosen trait.
2013 2013 marks the 60th anniversary of the discovery of the double helix of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick and the 10th anniversary of the first sequencing of the human genome. Choose either of these breakthroughs and explain its broader impact on biotechnology, human health and disease, or our understanding of basic genetics, such as genetic variation or gene expression.

Justify your answer in detail and be sure to include one or more specific examples of broader impact. Use reliable references and citations to support your argument, for example, research published by experts in scientific journal articles and books.

2012 Genes exert their influence on organisms by being turned on and off in precise ways and at precise times. Disease can result when problems arise during this process of “gene regulation.” The first processes of gene regulation to be discovered involved molecular ‘switches’ that regulate transcription at gene promoters.

In the last 20 years, genomic research has uncovered many new types of gene regulation that earlier researchers would have never imagined. Genes can be regulated by repressors, activators, enhancers, epigenetic changes to chromatin, RNA interference, the environment, and other processes. Choose one of the gene regulation processes listed above and, using references to support your argument, explain why/how that regulatory process is critically important to ONE of the following:

  • Early development
  • Normal cell function
  • Causation of disease or cell malfunction
2011 In 2010, a major discovery in genetics research found that the DNA of some modern humans contains small amounts of Neanderthal DNA. Briefly explain this finding and discuss its relevance to human ancestry and evolution.
2010 Scientists can now determine the complete DNA sequences of organisms, including humans. Now that this milestone has been reached, is there a reason to continue learning about Mendel, alleles, and inheritance patterns? Explain your answer.
2009 Some traits come in two varieties (for example, Mendel’s round and wrinkled peas with the green and yellow colors). Do all traits for all species come in only two varieties? Justify your answer by explaining the relationship between genes and traits.
2008 Discuss the practical implications that genetics research is playing in our lives today. Discuss where is might lead us in the next 10 years.
2007 Discuss the practical implications that genetics research is playing in our lives today. Discuss where is might lead us in the next 10 years.

 

竞赛奖项

第一名:1000美元奖金

第二名:600美元奖金

第三名:400美元奖金

荣誉奖:10名学生奖品,每人100美元

竞赛时间

论文提交起始日期:2021年1月上旬——2021年3月3日, 星期三

宣布获奖者和荣誉奖:2021年4月23日, 星期五

DNA日:2021年4月25日,星期日

报名要求

9-12年级学生

报名咨询

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