|学科||动物科学 Animal Science|
Developing Novel, Low-Cost Methods to Support Citizen Scientists in the Conservation of Bat Species
Bats have immense ecological benefits: consuming insects, pollinating plants, and preventing diseases spreading. Conservation work is hampered by high costs and difficult methods, consequently, citizen-scientists’ participation is restricted. Addressing this required developing a low-cost and multifunctional detector, accurate genetic tests, and a central repository for pooled data. The detector’s prototype used a Raspberry P in combination with a range of low-cost parts. Custom software was developed to record calls, analyse them, and present information to the user. Recorded calls were calibrated against verified data from Bat Conservation Ireland. Certain bat species cannot be identified through echolocation, consequently, a genetic test was developed using mitochondrial gene sequences. Six primer sets were designed for a single PCR-based reaction to identify between the nine Irish bat species. Our repository allows citizen-scientists to upload calls, identify species, and access information. An API was made accessible to detector manufacturers and researchers. Identifying information (spectrograms and time-expansion audio) is crowd-sourced so calls can be efficiently identified. The prototype represents a 57% reduction in cost and provides multiple detector features including: live and recorded time-expansion and heterodyne playback, sound-activated recording, and spectrogram display. The primers, selected from the Cytochrome C Oxidase I (COI) and the Cytochrome b (cytB) genes, facilitated our requirement for one PCR reaction, thus producing faster results at a lower cost. The development of a low-cost bat detector, a repository for calls and a rapid PCR identification method provide more effective tools to support the conservation of bat species.
高中生科研 英特尔 Intel ISEF
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英特尔国际科学与工程大奖赛，简称 “ISEF”，由美国 Society for Science and the Public（科学和公共服务协会）主办，英特尔公司冠名赞助，是全球规模最大、等级最高的中学生的科研科创赛事。ISEF 的竞赛学科包括了所有数学、自然科学、工程的全部领域和部分社会科学。ISEF 素有全球青少年科学竞赛的“世界杯”之美誉，旨在鼓励学生团队协作，开拓创新，长期专一深入地研究自己感兴趣的课题。
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学科简介：动物科学 Animal Science
This category includes all aspects of animals and animal life, animal life cycles, and animal interactions with one another or with their environment. Examples of investigations included in this category would involve the study of the structure, physiology, development, and classification of animals, animal ecology, animal husbandry, entomology, ichthyology, ornithology, and herpetology, as well as the study of animals at the cellular and molecular level which would include cytology, histology, and cellular physiology.
Animal Behavior (BEH): The study of animal activities which includes investigating animal interactions within and between species or an animal’s response to environmental factors. Examples are animal communication, learning, and intelligence, rhythmic functions, sensory preferences, pheromones, and environmental effects on behaviors, both naturally and experimentally induced.
Cellular Studies (CEL): The study of animal cells involving the use of microscopy to study cell structure and studies investigating activity within cells such as enzyme pathways, cellular biochemistry, and synthesis pathways for DNA, RNA, and protein.
Development (DEV): The study of an organism from the time of fertilization through birth or hatching and into later life. This includes cellular and molecular aspects of fertilization, development, regeneration, and environmental effects on development.
Ecology (ECO): The study of interactions and behavioral relationships among animals, and animals and plants, with their environment and with one another.
Genetics (GEN): The study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. These projects include studies of heredity, dealing with resemblances and differences of related organisms resulting from the interaction of their genes and the environment. Studies may include projects relating to gene expression, gene regulation, genomics, and model organisms.
Nutrition and Growth (NTR): The study of natural, artificial, or maternal nutrients on animal growth, development, and reproduction including the use and effects of biological and chemical control agents to control reproduction and population numbers.
Physiology (PHY): The study of one of the 11 animal systems. This includes structural and functional studies, system mechanics, and the effect of environmental factors or natural variations on the structure or function of a system. Similar studies conducted specifically at the cellular level should select the cellular studies subcategory.
Systematics and Evolution (SYS): The study of animal classification and phylogenetic methods including the evolutionary relationships between species and populations. This includes morphological, biochemical, genetic, and modeled systems to describe the relationship of animals to one another.
Other (OTH): Studies that cannot be assigned to one of the above subcategories. If the project involves multiple subcategories, the principal subcategory should be chosen instead of Other.