|学科||行为与社会科学 BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES|
|学校||John L. Miller Great Neck North High School|
|国家/州||State of New York，United States of America|
The Language of Facial Expressions: A Neuroimaging Study on How a Smile Is Generated and Perceived by Another Person
Facial expressions, particularly smiles, have implications for debilitating psychiatric disorders such as autism, depression, and schizophrenia, which make them a critical area for study. As of yet, no study has measured the neural activity during the simultaneous expression and reception of facial cues between people. The purpose of this experiment is to measure and compare the brain activity between subjects smiling and other subjects reacting to the smiles. The non-invasive device functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) allows for measurement of brain activity during face-to-face interactions. Subjects were paired, fNIRS optodes were placed on their heads, and facial tracking devices detected smiles. Participants alternated between watching ‘cute’ animal videos (the video watchers) and observing the faces of their partners (the face watchers). Results show that even when both partners smiled (a smile contagion) there was different neurological activity distinguishing a social smile generated by looking at the face of a partner from that of a smile generated in response to a non-human stimulus. A contagion smile activated the social areas of the brain such as the language and frontal areas, while non-social smiles activated the motor and parietal cortices. These findings advance our understanding of neural systems specialized for social behaviors.
高中生科研 英特尔 Intel ISEF
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英特尔国际科学与工程大奖赛，简称 "ISEF"，由美国 Society for Science and the Public（科学和公共服务协会）主办，英特尔公司冠名赞助，是全球规模最大、等级最高的中学生的科研科创赛事。ISEF 的竞赛学科包括了所有数学、自然科学、工程的全部领域和部分社会科学。ISEF 素有全球青少年科学竞赛的“世界杯”之美誉，旨在鼓励学生团队协作，开拓创新，长期专一深入地研究自己感兴趣的课题。
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学科简介：行为与社会科学 BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
The science or study of the thought processes and behavior of humans and other animals in their interactions with the environment studied through observational and experimental methods.
Sociology and Social Psychology
Clinical and Developmental Psychology (CLN): The study and treatment of emotional or behavioral disorders. Developmental psychology is concerned with the study of progressive behavioral changes in an individual from birth until death.
Cognitive Psychology (COG): The study of cognition, the mental processes that underlie behavior, including thinking, deciding, reasoning, and to some extent motivation and emotion.
Neuroscience (NEU): Studies of the neural basis of cognitive processes, including learning and memory, language and thought, perception, attention, and affect. It investigates the human brain, from the functional organization of large scale cerebral systems to microscopic neurochemical processes.
Physiological Psychology (PHY): The study of the biological and physiological basis of behavior. This field studies the neural mechanisms of perception and behavior through direct manipulation of the brain in controlled experiments.
Sociology and Social Psychology (SOC): The study of human social behavior, especially the study of the origins, organization, institutions, and development of human society. Sociology is concerned with all group activities-economic, social, political, and religious.
Other (OTH): Studies that cannot be assigned to one of the above subcategories. If the project involves multiple subcategories, the principal subcategory should be chosen instead of Other.